Candelilla Wax (Euphorbia cerifera)
Literally meaning ‘little candle’, the erect waxy stems of the candelilla not only look like candles but are also used as a source of wax to make candles. The plants grow in the extreme heat of the Chihuanhuan Desert in Northern Mexico and produce a waxy covering to protect their stems from being dried out by the fiercely hot sun. The wax collected from the stems can be used to help provide a protective barrier on the skin.
Chamomile Essential Oil/Extract (Anthemis nobilis)
This herb takes its name from the Greek kamai (ground) and melon (apple) because of the sweet apple-like fragrance it releases when trodden on. The essential oil is considered a gentle oil by aromatherapists and medical herbalists have used chamomile for soothing the skin for centuries.
Cypress Essential Oil (Cupressus sempervirens)
This large evergreen tree has been regarded as an ancient symbol of comfort and solace. The woody-evergreen odour of cypress essential oil is similar to pine and juniper berry. It is said to have sedative properties and can help relieve convulsive coughing and similar respiratory problems.
Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)
Clary Sage oil is distilled from the flowering tops and leaves of the plant, which grows best in the Mediterranean region. The oil has a sweet, herbaceous, warm tobacco-like note. It is used in aromatherapy to reduce stress and has an anti-depressant effect. The herb has been used for centuries in many different cultures both as a culinary and medicinal herb. The Egyptians used it to treat infertility, the Romans believed it prolonged life and in the Middle Ages it was said to have a 'miracle' curing power.
Cajuput Essential Oil (Melaleuca cajuputi)
Also called the swamp tea tree, this Indonesian tree has small fragrant white flowers that cluster around a long spike. This invigorating oil is extracted from the leaves and twigs of the tree and has been used by aromatherapists in cases of bronchial and respiratory problems, painful periods and cystitis.
Cedarwood - Virginian Essential Oil (Juniperus virginiana)
This essential oil has a woody odour reminiscent of pencil sharpenings. It is widely used in fine fragrances and aftershave lotions.
Clove Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus)
The clove is well known as a culinary spice. This colourful tree is admired for its beauty as its leaves change gradually throughout the year from yellow to pink to dark metallic green. The essential oil is distilled from the buds and provides a sweet familiar aroma and warming element to essential oil blends.
Cornflower Extract (Centaurea cyanus)
Considered weeds by corn farmers, cornflowers were found in Tutankamun’s tomb and were almost as blue as they would have been in 1550BC. An extract from these dainty blue flowers has been used for minor inflammations of the eye.
Cabreuva Essential Oil (Myrocarpus frondosus)
Cabreuva oil is distilled from the bark of the tree. The tree originates in South America and has very hard wood and is used for furniture making. The chippings from which the oil is extracted are the waste product of the timber mills. The oil has a delicate, sweet, woody-floral scent but has great tenacity and is used as a fixative in perfume blends.
Camphor Oil (Cinnamomum camphora)
Camphor oil has an uplifting and stimulating effect on both the skin and the mind. Extracted from the evergreen camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora, Chinese camphor is traditionally considered to be the best quality.
Cranberry Seed Oil (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
This oil is produced by pressing the seeds from cranberries. Rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9, it is an easily absorbed moisturising oil.
Cedarwood - Texan Essential Oil (Juniperus mexicana)
Texan cedarwood is native to the American southwest, growing in a band from Arkansas and Missouri south and west to Oklahoma, Texas and northern Mexico. The invasive propensity of the tree has caused the US Department of Agriculture to pay landowners to remove it to improve the grassland. Once cut and chipped, the wood is sent to distilleries which produce the essential oil through steam distillation. Texan cedarwood essential oil has a sweet, woody, slightly smoky note reminiscent of wood shavings.
Cocoa Butter (Theobroma cacao)
This rich, creamy butter which has moisturising effects on the skin is made from the roasted seeds of the cocoa tree, the same seeds that give us chocolate and cocoa.
Calendula Extract (Calendula officinalis)
This cheerful plant more commonly known as marigold has a long history of use in traditional medicine. An extract produced from the plant has a calming, soothing effect on the skin.
Cucumber Extract (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber contains traces of useful nutrients, including potassium, silicon and sulphur. Traditionally used as a compress this refreshing ingredient is calming and soothing.
Cardamom Essential Oil (Elettaria cardamomum)
The spice cardamom is the seed of Eletteria cardamomum, the cardamom. Closely related to ginger, cardamom has green, sword-shaped leaves and white flowers with pink veining. Considered to be the world’s third most expensive spice, cardamom is most commonly sold in the pod (whole or split) as seeds rapidly lose freshness outside the pod, and ground cardamom loses its flavour quickly. Cardamom essential oil has a warm, spicy, aromatic top note that becomes woody and balsamic, then sweet and almost floral on the dryout.
Coriander Essential Oil (Coriandrum sativum)
Coriander is native to southern Europe and the western Mediterranean region. The essential oil is distilled from the dried fruits (seeds) of the plant and has a sweet, musky, spicy, woody aroma. As the seeds dry they develop an aromatic scent and flavour and this has been used to advantage for thousands of years. The seeds have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs and reference was made to them in ancient Sanscrit writings. The ancient Romans used the spice to preserve their meat.
Carnauba Wax (Copernicia cerifera)
This natural plant wax comes from the leaves of the carnauba tree native to South America. Its leaves are covered by a waxy coating which helps them tolerate drought, the drier the conditions, the more wax is produced. This wax can be used to help provide a protective barrier on the skin.
Cedarwood - Chinese Essential Oil (Cupressus funebris)
The essential oil produced from this evergreen tree has a woody, smoky odour. It has natural fixative properties which mean it can be added to a fragrance to help it last longer.
Clementine Essential Oil (Citrus reticulata 'clementine')
The clementine is a member of the large family of small citrus fruits. Clementine oil is produced by expression of the peel and aromatherapists classify the sweet essential oil as both extremely uplifting and balancing.
Comfrey Extract (Symphytum officinale)
Its name comes from the Latin con firma, meaning to grow together. This and some of its other common names including bruisewort, boneset and knitbone suggest its history of use in herbal medicine. Comfrey contains allantoin, an ingredient prescribed in the early 20th century as a remedy for a variety of skin disorders.
Carrot Seed Essential Oil (Daucus carota)
The carrot’s umbrella-shaped clusters of small, white to green-yellow flowers are followed by small, oval, dull brown fruits commonly referred to as seeds. The oil obtained from these seeds has a distinctive sweet-spicy, earthy fragrance and is commonly used in chypre and oriental perfumes.
Coco-caprylate/caprate is a light emollient oil wholly derived from Coconut and Palm oils. It’s lightness and exceptional spreading power makes it an ideal base oil when an almost dry non-greasy finish is desired.
Cotton extract (Gossypium herbaceum)
Cotton sugars create a barrier over the fibres of each cotton seed to protect them from the elements. Cotton extract works in the same way on hair, forming a barrier that works to improve the smoothness of each hair shaft. Smooth hair reflects more light in the same direction resulting in hair that appears glossier and healthier.
Clove bud oil (Eugenia caryophyllus)
Native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia, Eugenia caryophyllus is a small evergreen tree with large leaves and abundant red flowers held in terminal clusters. It is for these flowers, or more specifically the buds, that these trees are renowned and grown: the spice clove is the dried flower bud of Eugenia. Clove bud essential oil has an unusual fresh, fruity top note with an acetic odour that makes it refreshing and different from clove oils derived from leaf and stem. This top note combines with a powerful sweet-spicy note for which the oil is principally used.
Cinnamon Leaf Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a medium-size tree native to the island of Sri Lanka, which remains the major producer. Cinnamon has been known and prized as a spice and fragrance ingredient for at least four millennia: there is evidence of cinnamon being shipped to Egypt as early as 2000BC. Cinnamon is among the handful of plants mentioned in the Bible several times as a fragrancing ingredient and cinnamon leaves are a by-product of the production of the bark quills for spice. Cinnamon leaf essential oil has spicy and warm, mouthwatery undertones with a crispy note.
Cypriol Root Oil (Cyperus scariosus)
Cyperus scariosus, a sedge closely related to papyrus, from which the Egyptians made writing material, grows wild in the Madhya Pradesh region of India. The roots of this sedge are prized for the essential oil known as cypriol which is distilled from them. Cypriol brings woody, texturised, humid and mossy undertones to fragrance. It is used for its dry, woody-earthy, slightly spicy odour that is tenacious and consistent once the fresh top note dries down.
Coconut oil (Coco nucifera (coconut) oil)
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a large palm reaching 30 metres (nearly 100 feet) in height. The coconut oil we use in Liz Earle Naturally Active Haircare is pressed on the Kenyan coast from a mixture of wild-harvested and plantation-grown coconuts using a sustainable direct micro expelling process to produce a virgin, cold pressed, unrefined oil. Coconut oil is extracted from the flesh of mature coconuts which contains around 33% oil, which helps to moisturise and smooth hair.
Cyperus (Cupressus sempervirens (cyperus) absolute)
Cypress essential oil is distilled from the twigs of cypress, a very narrow, erect evergreen from the Mediterranean. Reminiscent of pine needles, the sweet balsamic, refreshing note of cypress absolute brings a sexy, woody note to the fragrance. The plant material for the essential oil in Botanical Essence No.100 is harvested in France where clippings from the annual autumn pruning of trees in plantations, as well as branches dropped in storms, are collected for distillation.
Clove leaf (Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) leaf oil)
The spice clove is the dried flower bud of an evergreen tree, and is cultivated in Indonesia, as well as Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Madagascar and Zanzibar. Clove leaf essential oil has a slightly sweet, dry, woody note that is sometimes described as having a burnt, bread-like aspect. It is greener and less sticky than clove oils derived from bud and stem. The leaves used in Botanical Essence No.100 are sourced from Madagascar where they are a subsidiary crop of the spice production.
Cedrat (Citrus medica)
A radiant, tangy and zesty citrus. It has an extremely rich and fruity initial fragrance followed by a characteristic herbaceous and balsamic body.